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For example, different characters or data sources that provide support for conflicting trees (rather than from the absence of support) can result in short branches; under these conditions, even standard maximum likelihood (ML) can seriously underestimate branch lengths (Penny et al. Additionally, use of inappropriate genes or analysis methods can return short branches. (2008) recommend longer sequences (they used 4,594 bp of mt DNA) and the use of multiple independent nuclear loci.